Lithography: Concepts, Challenges and Prospects
Kevin Lucasa, Sergei Postnikova, Cliff Hendersonb, Scott Hector,
aMotorola Advanced Products Research and Development Laboratory, DigitalDNA Labs, 3501 Ed Bluestein Blvd., Mail Drop: K-10, Austin, Texas 78721 USA
bSchool of Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 778 Atlantic Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 USA
Kevin Lucasa, Sergei Postnikova, Cliff Hendersonb, Scott Hector, , a
Lithography is a key technology enabling the continued miniaturization of integrated circuits. In this chapter, an overview is presented of all important aspects of lithography. Some basic scaling equations governing the theory of optical lithography are presented, but the chapter focuses on describing the practical challenges in applying lithography for integrated circuit manufacturing. Practical aspects of pattern layout, exposure tool design, masks, lens design, CD control, overlay control, resists, substrate control, simulation, optical proximity correction, phase shift masks, cost of ownership and emerging lithographic techniques are described in detail.
Author Keywords: lithography, photolithography, masks, resists, steppers, scanners.