Investigation of the substrate activation mechanism and electroless Ni–P coating ductility and adhesion

T. N. KhoperiaCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, Georgian Academy of Sciences, 6 Tamarashvili Street, Tbilisi GE-380077, Georgia

Available online 14 June 2003.


The effects of different factors: concentration of Sn and Pd ions, temperature, pH, additives, surface roughness, time of treatment on sensitization, activation and electroless deposition were investigated. The adsorption and desorption of tin and palladium ions have been investigated using the method of radioactive isotopes and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A mechanism of sensitization and activation was established. The established characters of ductility and adhesion between the electrolessly deposited Ni–P alloy and dielectrics depending on annealing temperature were explained on the basis of the changes in the alloy structure and phase transformations. The proposed methods of metallization are widely used in electronics and instrument-making. As a result, Au, Ag and Pd were adequately replaced with the alloys of non-precious metals, usage of toxic substances was eliminated and the technology was significantly simplified. A new resistless technology is proposed.

Author Keywords: Electroless deposition; Sensitization; Activation; Microelectronics; Ductility; Resistless technology

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